December 30, 2014
A parking levy is a special property tax charged on non-residential off-street parking. In theory, it can provide several benefits. By making parking less profitable for owners, it can encourage a reduction in parking supply, hence increasing land use efficiency and reducing environmental impacts caused by parking surfaces. By making parking more expensive, it can help deter people from driving, therefore aiding to reduce congestion and environmental impacts caused by driving. In addition, revenue collected from the tax can be used as a dedicated tool to fund transportation projects. Only a few cities in the world have implemented parking levies, therefore the tool’s potential is unexploited and its actual effects, understudied. This document is a comparative and comprehensive study of parking levies around the world. A count of thirteen cities and regions have implemented parking levies and four have major proposals that have not yet been implemented. These policies show ample variation. The research framework analyzes the typical policy objectives, the different ways in which the levy can be outlined, and offers a brief review of outcomes. This structure will hopefully provide city planners, policy makers, and city officials a better understanding of how parking levies work.